Qbeh-1: The Atlas Cube Forum  /  FPS affects the game in multiple ways
  Quest_WalkerQuest_Walker

This is easily seen in the category of "Lag Jump"
If you lower your FPS down to 2FPS or lower, you'll be able to jump 4 blocks high.

A weaker form of Lag Jumping can be achieved by lowering your FPS down to 50FPS, and is used to jump on top of the Save Point statues.

Force cubes, if your FPS is over 60, even with V-Sync on, it will still dissipate early, easy to notice if above 300FPS.

Gravity cubes, if your FPS is 250-300+ you wont be able to clear a 3 high wall, due to this your distance covered will also be affected, this only gets worse the higher your FPS is.

 
  Quest_WalkerQuest_Walker

Tested moving platforms at different FPS's, results are below:

60fps+ (Uncapped): 100% speed
60fps: 100% speed
6fps: 100% speed
2fps: 66%~ speed

Thus moving platforms are slower if your fps gets bogged down or capped below 6fps~.